Schools of Swordsmanship and fencing increase martial artistry. These schools generally train knightly infantry, including most civilizations' infantry unique units. Wanting every man to be skilled with the sword, the Teutonic Order even allows its Riga Militia to attend the swordsmanship training. All these units receive +4 attack upon completion of their schooling.
This section lists civs that can make the best of Swordsmanship (sometimes recommended with a certain policy decision). Note that this may not be the best weapons training tech for that civ, but the civ can still make very good use of it.